威尼斯144777cσm欢迎你-欢迎您

Concern: environmental protection is the reality that PCB enterprises must face directly.

时间:2017-03-10     来源:YiLiHua    关键词:YiLiHua     浏览量:905
Prices of raw materials, RMB appreciation, labor costs and environmental pressure have led to the PCB industry into a high-cost era. But in order to achieve sustainable development, environmental protection is still the reality that PCB enterprises must face directly.

At the 2008 International Circuit Seminar sponsored by China Printed Circuit Association (CPCA) in Shenzhen a few days ago, industry representatives and experts analyzed and discussed how PCB (Printed Circuit Board) enterprises implement industry environmental protection, energy saving, emission reduction and cleaner production in the era of high cost.

PCB industry enters high cost Era

Recently, domestic manufacturing enterprises, including PCB enterprises, have generally reflected that raw material prices have risen, internal costs have increased and profits have fallen sharply.

In view of the rising cost of PCB manufacturing since 2008, the CPCA Information Department has investigated dozens of typical PCB and CCL manufacturers in the industry. The survey shows that the average cost of FR-4 clad laminate, which accounts for 40% of PCB cost, has risen by 7%, and the cost of main materials such as copper foil, copper particles, semi-solidified sheets, nickel, lead-tin bars, gold and salt, which accounts for 25% of PCB cost, has risen by 12%, the cost of major chemicals, which accounts for 10% of PCB cost, has risen by 9%, labor cost has risen by 14%, RMB appreciation and tax reform. The cost of leather and other factors has increased by about 3%. Combined with these factors, PCB manufacturing costs have risen by an average of 10%, and it is expected that PCB manufacturing costs will continue to rise over time.

Guan Jianhua, chairman of CPCA and managing director of Tianjin Pulin Circuit Co., Ltd., pointed out another reason why PCB has entered the era of high cost. He said that besides the rising prices of raw materials, the appreciation of Renminbi and the rising labor costs, the pressure of environmental protection has also directly led to the cost of enterprises in the PCB industry. Rise. He stressed that both at home and abroad, environmental protection requirements are becoming increasingly stringent, and the various standards and indicators of products are becoming higher and higher, which will make the cost of production conditions paid by enterprises higher and higher. And in order to achieve sustainable development, the country's environmental protection requirements will certainly be more stringent, so in the next few years, this cost will rise rapidly.

Setting up environmental protection standards should be objective and realistic.

At present, the development trend of eco-industry has sprung up in the world. Following the directives of EU RoHS, WEEE and REACH, the Chinese government has also issued the Regulations on the Prevention and Control of Pollution of Electronic Information Products (China RoHS). At the same time, China has made "energy saving, emission reduction, consumption reduction and efficiency enhancement" the primary goal, and will spend three years to identify the sources of pollution in China. The basic situation of the environmental protection laws and regulations provides the basis for future environmental protection laws and regulations. Although PCB industry is not included in the heavy pollution industry, as a relative water consumption, energy consumption industry and existing waste water, waste liquid and solid waste discharge, further expansion and development of PCB industry in water and energy consumption indicators are affected. China is formulating and will soon promulgate cleaner production standards and implement the Electronic Industry Pollutant Discharge Standards - Components. For PCB manufacturers, the increase of COD (chemical oxygen demand), Cu, water consumption, water reuse ratio and other indicators will inevitably increase the operation and construction costs of existing and new PCB enterprises. Therefore, the industry calls for the formulation of PCB-related standards, should proceed from the actual situation of the industry, and refer to foreign standards, so that the formulation of standards will be accepted by most PCB enterprises.

Wang Longji, deputy director of China Printed Circuit Association (CPCA), said that when we formulate the emission standards for electronic waste, especially for electronic components and printed circuits, we should focus on the whole industry and information industry, and consider the relationship among software, integrated circuits and various products. Consideration should be given to the modernization of industry, agriculture and national defense, because the printed circuit industry plays an irreplaceable role. Environmental protection is absolutely not simply to raise standards, standards are not set as the more stringent the better, the higher the better.

For example, the GB5479-2006 drinking water national standard allows copper content to be less than or equal to 1.0 mg/l, the United States issued copper and lead regulations explicitly stipulate that tap water quotation standards allow copper content to be less than or equal to 1.3 mg/l, and China's PCB waste water discharge standards must be less than or equal to 0.5 mg/l, that is to say, such as The fruit printing board enterprises will discharge the drinking water which meets the national standards as wastewater directly, and will also be in the situation of fines exceeding the standards. He pointed out that if the copper content in the PCB discharge standard is to be elevated to twice the standard of drinking tap water, it will waste more equipment, resources and electricity, increasing the cost of enterprises.
Moreover, the actual level of COD should be more than 200 mg/l, if the hard to upgrade to 100 mg/l to 80 mg/l, and in the production unit water strict restrictions, it is tantamount to PCB enterprises all "out".

Seeking transformation in the era of high cost

Circuit plays an important role in industry and information industry. Chinese PCB industry and enterprises should face the new industrial environment, especially the changes brought by high cost, and actively explore new development mode.

Liu Shufeng, general manager of Shengyi Science and Technology, said that under the current environment, the PCB industry can change its macro-business environment through its own efforts. This mainly refers to the government's policies based on economic policies and some game needs of the international economy. The introduction of these policies will be conducive to the healthy development of the PCB industry.

Shenzhen Shennan Circuit Co., Ltd. General Manager Yu radium said that facing the era of high cost, PCB manufacturers should strengthen communication and cooperation with the upstream and downstream of the industrial chain, together with material suppliers in the same industrial chain, can not be separated, the two sides should more mutual understanding and support. Cooperation is a long-term business behavior, everyone's goal is to tide over difficulties together, if based on the short-term, maybe one party earned some benefits, but in the long run will damage the industrial chain, will also damage the cooperation between the two sides. At the same time, PCB enterprises themselves should actively take measures to reduce costs, develop alternative materials, develop more suppliers, and offer reasonable quotations to customers to disperse the risks brought by centralized supply of materials and rising costs.

Yan Yonghong, secretary-general of WECC, said that PCB enterprises should first optimize product mix, improve technology level and carry out R&D innovation in the era of high cost. Enterprises that use low-price and low-grade products to participate in market competition at the expense of sustainable development will be eliminated. Only by creating unique products and services can they participate in global competition better. The industry has some enterprises, with leading technology, flexible and diverse product structure, excellent service to achieve sustainable development. What China needs is a group of such enterprises to enhance the level of the whole PCB industry in China. Second, China's PCB industry is the only way to improve production efficiency. At present, there is still a big gap in production efficiency between China and advanced countries such as the United States, Japan, South Korea and Europe. With the rising cost of raw materials and labor, the efficiency of unit output will directly determine the competitive position of enterprises in the market. Finally, PCB enterprises should improve their management level and open up new markets. Many Chinese private enterprises, if they lack characteristics for a long time, can not improve their management level, technology research and development, product upgrading and "three wastes" management rapidly, and will soon be in trouble. Enterprises with low grade, low efficiency and high pollution will soon be eliminated by the market. In addition, industry enterprises must attach importance to the development of emerging markets, timely grasp the industry development context and market information and changes, early understanding of emerging markets, entry and participation in competition, for the development of enterprises to find new ideas.

Despite the challenge of high cost, environmental protection and cleaner production are still the same theme for the sustainable development of PCB industry. Wang Longji told the reporter, China's PCB industry development at the cost of environmental pollution era will never return, the future of China's competitive enterprises must be the development of enterprises in harmony with the environment. Cleaner production, energy conservation and emission reduction will be throughout all aspects of operation and management to achieve the complete control of three wastes and recycling of resources, in order to adapt to the adjustment of industrial policy and market competition, and achieve sustainable development.

He pointed out that China's PCB industry layout, the most reasonable should be in the coastal areas or areas away from lakes, especially away from rivers and lakes. At present, administrators in some places, regardless of the overall situation, only consider the temporary local interests of the region, and do not rush through normal channels to recruit some enterprises limited or eliminated by cost, environmental protection reasons to build factories in the Mainland and other areas. This is short-sighted. Nowadays, industrial transfer must aim at achieving sustainable development and ecological development. If these areas do not get the environmental quota, the "three wastes" treatment can not use the latest international level of technology and equipment, if small and medium-sized enterprises can not really "three wastes" for centralized treatment, it will repeat the pollution of the environment, enterprises can not eventually develop.

Expert opinion
China's PCB standards and certification should be put on the agenda.

Wang Longji, Secretary General of China Printed Circuit Association

Certification and standards not only embody a country's sovereignty, but also represent a country's industrial technology level. At present, the output and output value of PCB and CCL in China rank first in the world. It is time for Chinese certification, Chinese standard to replace or equivalent foreign certification or standard. Foreign standards and certification must not continue to restrict the development of China's PCB industry, affecting the level of the entire industry.

In the past, because of the early development of industry in Europe and America, they set a series of standards to ensure the healthy development of their industry. With the rapid development of Asia, especially China in the past 30 years, European and American standards have gradually become obstacles to protecting them and restricting our development and export. Recently, with the global economic crisis, they have adopted standards as a means of squeezing our profits.

On June 1, this year, the price of a PCB project to pass UL certification increased from 30,000 yuan to 50,000 yuan, a 60% increase, while CCL project certification, requires 100,000 to 200,000 yuan, and the annual maintenance fee is still very high, only the PCB industry will be charged a year of certification fees as much as one billion yuan. And all products, including all parts and components to export, need UL certification, you can imagine how much each year will be a fee.

At present, China's electronics industry has ranked second in the world, our PCB, CCL circuit output, regardless of the world's first, why can't we use Chinese certification to replace foreign certification, why can't we and the international use the equivalent way, or mutual recognition way. In China's PCB industry production technology standards, can not always be in accordance with the United States IPC standards, why not gradually use the majority of Chinese PCB enterprises to participate in the formulation of the Chinese standards?

China's domestic demand products can be completely solved by 3C certification, but as a large part of our exports, we have to be subject to UL and other foreign certification, standards, may be difficult to change at the moment, but should be put on the agenda.

PCB emission standard for industrial Cu should be formulated with scientific attitude.

CPCA consultant Lin Jindu

As we all know, sticking to and achieving scientific attitude and Scientific Outlook on Development is not easy. Scientific attitude is to reflect reality by investigating and seeking truth from facts. And blindly emphasize high indicators, but the implementation of "energy consumption" and increase costs, more importantly, it is not necessary to set such a high standard, this is not a scientific concept of development. At present, in the PCB industry, there are still some standards have not been formulated according to objective reality, such as the content of copper ions in PCB wastewater, has been plagued and hindered the development of enterprises in the industry.

In the PCB industry, is it better to make various standards of technical indicators? On the surface, only the standard of high indicators can meet the requirements of energy saving and emission reduction. But if the high indicators become unrealistic, it will bring negative impact to enterprises and industries.

According to the discharge standard of PCB pollutants in electroplating industry, the content of Cu (Cu) is less than 1.0mg/l. As you know, unlike the electroplating industry, the probability of copper plating in the electroplating industry is low, so the pollution level of PCB is much lower and it is easier to meet this emission standard. The whole process of PCB industry is inseparable from "copper", which is more or less present in all aqueous solutions (or wet processes). Therefore, the treatment of pollutants in PCB production is actually the treatment of Cu content, and it is very difficult to truly and completely meet the discharge requirements of Cu content less than 1.0mg/l. According to the draft new standard, the target will be raised to <0.5mg/l, which will require more equipment and chemicals. The consequence will not only increase the energy consumption of wastewater, but may also increase the discharge of new pollutants such as chemicals used for treatment.

At present, the emission requirements of PCB industry with Cu content less than 1.0mg/l are very high. In fact, it is very difficult for large (or powerful) enterprises to reach this standard all the time, but for most small and medium-sized enterprises in the industry, it can be said that most of the time is impossible. What is the discharge of Cu? Does it need to be set that high? Let's take a look at the relevant standards of foreign countries and Taiwan in China: the content of Cu in tap water in the United States can reach < 1.3 mg/l, and the content of Cu in PCB industrial wastewater is less than 2.0 mg/l, which is very scientific; the content of Cu in European PCB wastewater is less than 3.0 mg/l; the content of Cu in Japanese PCB wastewater is less than 3.0 mg/l; The Cu content of PCB wastewater discharged from Taiwan is also less than 3.0mg/l. These developed areas of PCB technology for PCB industrial wastewater discharge of the Cu content is higher than China's standards, this is not worth our reference and thinking?
Originally, the content of Cu in PCB industrial wastewater discharge in China has been 1-2 times higher than that in developed countries and regions, and now it will be doubled, 3-5 times higher than them. To meet this requirement, more equipment (energy) and materials (especially chemicals) must be spent, which does not meet the requirements of energy conservation and emission reduction.

The content of Cu in PCB industrial wastewater discharged in China is set at <0.5mg/l, while that in tap water for people's daily use is set at <1.0mg/l. That is to say, the tap water of our country has already not conformed to our country's "Industrial Pollutant Discharge Standard (Draft)", or that the tap water used by our people is already a very serious pollutant.

According to the above brief comments and analysis, we should draw on the advanced experience of the developed countries and regions in the world and the lessons of the PCB industry in China, and fully consider the practicability, effectiveness and international advanced nature. It is suggested that the content of Cu in the PCB industrial wastewater discharged from China should be less than 2.0mg/l or less than 1.5mg/l. It is appropriate (generally speaking, the content of Cu in industrial wastewater should be about one times higher than that in tap water). Such a stipulated value belongs to the world's leading indicators, equivalent to or higher than the United States standards of the same type (the world's most stringent standards), which is conducive to the rapid progress and development of China's PCB industry and information industry. It is also conducive to the development of environmental protection in China's energy conservation and emission reduction.

Establishing conservation oriented enterprises to meet the challenge of PCB high cost Era

Guan Jianhua, general manager of prin circuit, Tianjin

During the 30 years of reform and opening up, our industrial development has entered the ranks of the world economy along the way of low cost and low price. Such a strategy has made our industry get extraordinary development. However, with the continuous change of the supply-demand relationship and the squeeze of the world environment on our cost mode, the PCB industry in China has entered a high-cost era.

The four reason is that the cost of PCB is rising.

The main reasons for the increase of PCB cost are:

First, energy shortages and rising energy prices. The state proposes to realize industrialization as soon as possible, which will lead to higher energy demand and price. The rising energy price will lead to a substantial increase in raw materials and manufacturing costs paid by PCB enterprises.

Second, the continued appreciation of the RMB has reduced the profit margins of export oriented enterprises in the PCB industry. At present, the main advantage of PCB enterprises participating in international market competition is price. The appreciation of RMB directly weakens our price advantage. The increase of production cost caused by the rise of domestic raw material prices leads to the decrease of profit margin of enterprises and the decrease of product competitiveness in the world. At the same time, reducing and abolishing tax rebates on related export products will block the development of some enterprises. Foreign enterprises are constantly crowding into China, so that domestic enterprises are resisted by domestic and international markets to varying degrees.

Third, the rising price of human resources has led to an increase in the cost of payment. The recently implemented Labor Contract Law and the brewing Social Insurance Law stipulate the relevant clauses such as compensation for dismissal, wages, social security, holidays, minimum wages and so on, so as to safeguard the rights and interests of workers. For enterprises, all of these objectively result in the increase of labor factor cost.

Fourth, the pressure of environmental protection leads to the rising cost of enterprises. At present, environmental protection requirements are becoming more and more stringent, and various standards and indicators of products are becoming higher and higher, indicating that the cost of production conditions paid by enterprises is becoming higher and higher.

The rising cost of enterprises has affected the profit margin of enterprises and the competitiveness of foreign trade export products. It can be said that China's economy has entered a period of "high cost growth". The era of high price industrialization has arrived. Chinese enterprises, including PCB, will face the challenge of the second adjustment.

Adjust strategy to adapt to high cost Era

Enterprises must adjust their business strategy in time to adapt to the changes in the environment. Only in this way can they complete the smooth transition from low-cost disorderly competition to high-cost era. High cost not only affects the entire PCB industry, but also brings enormous pressure to the entire information industry and the upstream and downstream industrial chain. High costs will change many of our business practices, and the most long-term response to high costs is technological progress and accelerated development and construction. For the time being, I believe that building a conservation oriented enterprise is the most important thing at present. For enterprises, because of the rise of the overall cost, saving can offset some of the pressure of rising costs on enterprises, of course, there are many specific ways to establish conservation-oriented enterprises.

First, reduce costs in the procurement of raw materials, establish a "procurement to make money" concept, reduce the total cost of raw materials from the source. There has always been an idea in people's minds that purchasing is money spent and the purchasing department is a big spender. However, with the economic globalization, we must establish the idea that "procurement is the source of corporate profits". On the one hand, the procurement cost can be greatly reduced by means of price-comparison procurement and online procurement, on the other hand, the procurement department can cooperate with R&D and production departments to achieve product differentiation through the promotion of procurement management. In addition, we should also pay attention to the important role of the synergy effect in the competition of the purchasing supply chain, strengthen the unity and cooperation with the purchasing suppliers in the purchasing supply chain, and realize "win-win" with the lowest purchasing cost under the principle of mutual benefit and reciprocity.
Second, we should save raw material costs in the production process. In the product cost, raw materials generally account for a large proportion, in the premise of ensuring product quality, saving raw materials and other consumption, not only can reduce the cost of products, but also for increasing production has a great role, it is an important factor to reduce product cost.

More efforts should be made in product design, material acquisition, production process and planning control to improve the qualified rate of the product and effectively reduce the consumption of raw materials.

Third, reduce inventory costs, inventory management must be close to zero inventory as the goal. The inventory cost mentioned here not only includes the stock cost of raw materials, but also the cost of WIP. Establishing a reasonable purchasing planning mechanism can effectively reduce the excess raw material inventory while meeting the production needs, and release more funds under pressure. At the same time, we should also note that there is in fact a time cost of capital occupied in the circulation cycle of WIP on the production line, which is the same as the reason why the stock of raw materials holds up the capital. Speeding up the production speed of WIP can effectively improve the capital utilization ratio of enterprises.

Fourth, try to eliminate the adverse effects of RMB appreciation on enterprises. First of all, we must recognize whether the RMB will appreciate in the future, and the extent of the appreciation, considering all the factors of the export price rise to determine the export price. Secondly, in the case of comparative prices, the foreign procurement of raw materials should be increased appropriately to offset export exchange rate losses. Thirdly, we should take financial measures to prevent exchange rate risks, such as forward settlement and sale of foreign exchange, foreign exchange swaps and other means to avoid exchange rate risks, but we must pay attention to the financial risks arising at the same time.

The era of high cost has come, and has really come to our real life, affecting our lives and work, which is a fatal impact on our enterprises. However, I believe that as long as all sectors of the community are concerned about supporting the survival and development of enterprises in the era of high costs, as long as our enterprises attach great importance to, firm confidence, take effective measures as soon as possible, and actively respond to, we will be able to survive safely in the era of high costs.
返回顶部
栏目 产品 设备 联系
栏目 产品 设备 联系
XML 地图 | Sitemap 地图